Bibliography No Year

Newspaper article (from the newspaper’s website) with no author

Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:

  • Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
  • If there is no author, the article title comes first.
  • For titles of newspapers, use italics and "headline" style capitalization.
  • Use the URL of the homepage of the newspaper to avoid non-working URLs.
  • It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.

Barcelona to ban burqa in municipal buildings. (2010, June 14).  Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com

In-Text Citations:

  • Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
  • When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline- style” capitalization, and the year.

(“Barcelona to Ban Burqa,” 2010)

  • Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative.
  • There must be a total match between the reference list and the parenthetical citation, so the article title must stand in place of an author’s name in the essay.

“Barcelona to Ban Burqa” (2010) contends that the move is aimed at all dress that impedes identification.

 

Website with no author and no date

Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:

  • Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
  • If there is no author, the article title comes first.
  • If there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d.
  • It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.

United Arab Emirates architecture. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.uaeinteract.com/

In-Text Citations:

  • Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
  • When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style" capitalization, and the year.

(“United Arab Emirates Architecture,” n.d.)

  • Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative.
  • There must be a total match between the reference list and the parenthetical citation, so the article title must stand in place of an author’s name in the essay.

“United Arab Emirates Architecture” (n.d.) describes building materials used in early settlements.

 

Journal or magazine article (from library database or online) with no author

Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:

  • Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
  • If there is no author, the article title comes first.
  • For titles of journals or magazines, use italics and "headline" style capitalization.
  • Use the URL of the homepage of the journal or magazine to avoid non-working URLS
  • It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.

Famine relief: Just a simple matter of supplying food? (2002). Nutrition Noteworthy, 5(1). Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/uclabiolchem_nutritionnoteworthy

In-Text Citations:

  • Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
  • When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline” style capitalization, and the year.

(“Famine Relief,” 2002)

  • Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative.
  • There must be a total match between the reference list and the parenthetical citation, so the article title must stand in place of an author’s name in the essay.

“Famine Relief” (2002) examines the causes of poverty and famine in Africa.

 

Works With an Anonymous Author

When a work’s author is designated as “Anonymous,” cite in text the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date:

(Anonymous, 2010)

In the reference list, an anonymous work is alphabetized by the word Anonymous

Anonymous. (2010). Food safety shake-up needed in the USA. The Lancet, 375(9732), 2122. Retrieved from http://www.thelancet.com

MLA: General

General Rules for MLA Format 7th Edition

How is MLA 7 different than MLA 6?

  • You are no longer required to have URL's in citations. If your instructor wants to include URLs, put them in angle brackets after the entry and end with a period.
  • Use italics instead of underlining for titles of larger works including books or magazines, and "quotation marks" for titles of shorter works such as poems or articles.

Author Rules:

List entries alphabetically by last name.

Works with no authors

If there is no author given, alphabetize the works by the title. Use a shortened version of the title.

Example:

Citing one author

To cite an author, use the last name followed by the first name and if given, the middle name of initial.

Example:

Last name, First name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.

Citing two authors

To cite two authors, use the last name followed by the first name and then inverse to first name and last name.

Example:

Last name, First name and First name Last name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.

Citing more than one author

If you are citing more than one author, separate the authors by commas alphabetically. The first author should have their last name, first name and the additional authors should be cited simply with their first and last name.

Example:

Last name, First name, First name Last name, and First name Last name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.

Contributor information:

Contributor information (editor, compilers, and translators) are typically cited after the name of the source. Use "Ed.", "Comp", or "Trans." to indicate what type of contributor you are citing.

Example:

Last name, First name. Source Title. Comp. First name Last name. City: Publisher, Year.

Publication information:

In MLA7, you must list the publication medium (print or web) after the publication information. MLA7 abbreviates all months except for May, June and July.

Book:

Last, First M. Title City: Publisher, Year Published. Medium

Journal:

Last, First M. "Article." Title Series Volume.Issue (Year Published): Page(s). Medium

Magazine:

Last, First M. "Article" Title Date Month Year Published: Page(s). Medium

Newspaper:

Last, First M. "Article" Title [City] Date Month Year Published, Edition, Section: Page(s). Medium.

Missing Information?

If you cannot find a place, publisher or date - use place holders "N.p., n.p., n.d." which represents no place, no publisher, and no date.

No page number - If there are no page numbers use "N. pag." Capitalize the abbreviations appropriately based on where they are placed.

No place:

Last, First M. Source Title N.p.: Publisher, Year. Medium

No publisher:

Last, First M. Source Title City: n.p., Year. Print

No date:

Last, First M. Source Title City: Publisher, n.d. Print.

Audio/Visual Rules

Film/Online Video:

Structure:

Title. Dir. First M. Last. By First M. Last. Perf. First M. Last, First M. Last, and First M. Last. Distributor, Year Published. Media Type.

Example:

Of Mice and Men Dir. Gary Sinise. By John Steinbeck. Perf. John Malkovich, Gary Sinise and Ray Walston. Released by Contemporary Films/McGraw-Hill, 1992. Videocassette.

Structure:

Artist Last, First M. "Track Name." Recorded Month Date, Year. In Album Name By Writer First M. Last. Cond. Conductor First M. Last. Orch. First M. Last. Perf. First M. Last. Band/Group Name. Rec. Date Month Year. Producer First M. Last, Year. CD/MP3, MIDI, Cassette/Vinyl.

Example:

Lady Gaga Born This Way Rec. 2011. Vincent Herbert, 2011. CD.

Web Rules

Structure:

Contributors. "Title." Website. Edition. Website Publisher, Date. Web. Date Accessed.

Sources Published Directly Online

Citing an Article from an Online Only Resource
Example:

Friedland, Lois. "Top 10 Natural and Wildlife Adventure Travel Tips." About.com New York Times Company, 22 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.

Citing an Entire Website with No Identifiable Electronic Publication Date
Example:

EasyBib.com ImagineEasy Solutions, n.d. Web. 8 May 2009.

Note:

Newspaper and magazine websites are considered non-periodical, directly published online sources even if they have in-print copies. Follow the published directly online format.

Citing an Article from an Online Only News Source

Example:

Chen, Stephanie. "Growing up is Hard with Mom in Prison." CNN.com Cable News Network, 7 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.

Citing an Article from an Online Newspaper

Example:

Shorto, Russell. "Going Dutch." New York Times New York Times, 3 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.

Citing an Online Only Journal

Example:

Glotzer, Richard and Anne Federlein. "Miles that Blind: Commuter Marriage and Family Strength." Michigan Family Review 12 (2007): 7-31. Web. 8 Apr. 2009.

Personal Website

Structure:

Last name, First name. Page Cited. Web. Date Accessed.

Example:

Smith, Steve. Home Page. Web. 3 January 2013.

Publication information:

Sources Published Indirectly Online

Sources may be originally in print, or in another medium, and found online. Cite these sources as you would in their original form, and then add as much relevant web information as possible (website title, publisher / sponsor, date of electronic publication, medium, and date accessed).

Citing a Book Originally in Print Found Online

Example:

Catton, Bruce. The Civil War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2005. Google Book Search. Web. 15 May 2008.

Citing a Newsletter Found Online With No Page Information

Example:

Puzzanchera, Charles. "Juvenile Arrests 2007." Juvenile Justice Bulletin. (Apr.2009): n.pag. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Web. 8 May 2009.

Citing a Video Found Online

Example:

West, Kanye. Amazing. Prod. Hype Williams. Roc-A-Fella Records, 2009. Youtube Web. 8 Feb. 2009.

Example:

Picasso, Pablo. Three Musicians. 1921. ArtQuotes.net Web. 5 Apr. 2006.

Citing a Musical Recording Listened to Online, With No Discernible Manufacturer or Date

Example:

Park, Obadiah. "Hey Ya." N.d. TheSixtyOne.com Web. 10 Feb. 2007.

Citing a Digital Image Found on Google Images

Example:

Bruce Springsteen. Digital Image. Google Images. LIFE. Web. 9 Oct. 2009. <http://images.google.com>.

Note: In the above example the title is not in quotes because it is a description of the digital image. The URL was truncated to the search URL because it was too long and complicated.

Citing an Originally in Print Journal Article Found in a Database

Example:

Ahn, Hyunchul, and Kyoung-jae Kim. "Using Genetic Algorithms to Optimize Nearest Neighbors for Data Mining." Annals of Operations Research 263.1 (2008): 5-18. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.

Note:

Sources found in online Databases typically have been published elsewhere. Include as much as the original publication information as possible, and then add the Database name, medium (web), and the date accessed.

View our visual citation guide on the Fundamentals of MLA Format.

View our visual citation guide on the Web Rules of MLA Format

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